Modes of transport compared

A direct comparison of the average greenhouse gas emissions of different modes of transport clearly shows that flying has the largest climate impact. The total greenhouse gas emissions of a journey are made up of the specific emissions and the distance travelled.

According to the German Federal Environment Agency’s Transport Emission Model (TREMOD, Version 6.03), the greenhouse gas emissions per passenger kilometre (pkm) from flights within Germany are around seven to eight times higher than those of more climate-friendly modes of transport such as long-distance trains and buses. But even compared to passenger cars, the specific emissions of domestic flights, i.e. the emissions in relation to the passenger kilometres (pkm) travelled, are around 60 % higher on average.

Greenhouse gas emissions of different modes of transport compared
Averaged values for journeys in Germany
Source: Oeko-Institut 2020 based on TREMOD Version 6.03 (Transport Emission Model of the German Federal Environment Agency)
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