What effect do flight emissions have?

In addition to direct greenhouse gas emissions, aviation has other harmful effects on the climate through cloud formation and other chemical processes (non-CO₂ effects) – these effects are not taken into account when analyses consider only the CO₂ emissions resulting from the combustion of kerosene. A study published in 2020 estimates that, assuming no change in the growth of aviation, the total climate-damaging effect of aviation is globally on average about three times greater than the effect of CO₂ emissions alone.

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